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A police officer or a police community support officer in uniform can stop you but only police officers can search you. A police officer does not have to be in uniform but they must show you their warrant card.
The three types of stops that you may encounter
1. Stop and account – when a police officer or police community support officer stops you in a public place and asks you to account for yourself and may ask you:
- what you are doing
- where you have been
- where you are going
- what you are carrying
2. Stop and search – when a police officer stops and then searches you, a vehicle and anything you are carrying.
3. Vehicle stop – where a police officer stops a vehicle.
The ins and outs
The police officer or police community support officer must explain why you are being stopped and why you are being asked to account for your actions or presence in an area. In almost all cases, an individual should be offered a record of the stop and account or stop and search at the time it happens. The police use these powers to help make the local community safer by preventing and detecting crime. Naturally, public cooperation is an essential part of that.
Stop and search predominantly takes place in public places. However, there are some powers, such as searching for firearms or drugs, which allow police to search people anywhere.
If you are in a public place, you may be required to remove your coat or jacket and your gloves, unless you have been stopped in relation to terrorism or where the officer believes you are using clothes to hide your identity.
If the officer asks you to take off more than this or anything you wear for religious reasons, such as a face scarf, veil or turban, they must take you somewhere out of public view. This doesn’t mean you’re being arrested.
The officer must be polite and respectful at all times. The Met are committed to continuously improving standards around the delivery of service to London’s communities.
We are aware that the process may take a little time but it should be handled quickly and professionally. The police officer may ask a few questions and then, if they consider it necessary, will search you. The search is not voluntary. If you don’t cooperate the officer can use reasonable force to conduct the search. If the Officer has a Body Worn Video camera they will record the encounter unless it is considered no longer necessary or proportionate.
A police officer can legally stop any vehicle at any time and ask to see driving documents, check the condition of the vehicle or deal with driving offences. This is not a stop and search and you may be given documentation relevant to road traffic matters. If the entire process ends there, this is considered a ‘vehicle stop'.
It becomes a stop and account if you or any passengers with you are asked to account for themselves. If a police officer then searches the vehicle or persons in it, this is a stop and search.
The police who stop and search you must provide you with certain information including:
- Why you have been stopped and searched
- Why they chose you
- What they are looking for
- Their name and the station where they’re based (unless the search is in relation to suspected terrorist activity or giving his or her name may place the officer in danger. They must then give their warrant identification number)
- The law under which you have been stopped
- Your right to a copy of the form
The police officer will ask for your name and address, date of birth and your ethnicity. You do not have to give this information if you don't want to; unless the police officer says they are reporting you for an offence.
You should be offered a written record of the stop and search or a receipt at the time of the event, or very occasionally you may be told where to collect the record later. If you wish to complain either about being stopped or searched or the way it was carried out, this record/receipt will help identify the circumstances.
The search record must contain the following information:
- The officer details
- The date, time and place of the stop and search
- The reason for the stop and search
- The outcome of the stop and search
- Your self-defined ethnicity
- The vehicle registration number (if relevant)
- What the officers were looking for and anything they found
- Your name or a description if you refuse to give your name
You have not been subject to stop and search if, for example:
- You are searched as a condition of entry to premises or an event
- You are searched following an arrest
- You are searched in premises that are being searched under a warrant from a court
In cases like these, a stop and search record will not be made and you will not be given a receipt.
You have not been subject to stop and account if, for example:
- You stop an officer to ask for directions or information
- You have witnessed a crime and are questioned about it to establish the background to the incident
- You have been in an area where a crime recently occurred and are questioned about what you might have seen
In cases like these, a record of the encounter will not be made and you will not be given a receipt.